Muhammad was driven out of Mecca in 620 C.E. to Yathrib, which is now known as Medina. Upon his return to Mecca in 629/30 C.E., the shrine became the focal point for Muslim worship and pilgrimage. The pre-Islamic Kaaba housed the Black Stone and statues of pagan gods. Muhammad reportedly cleansed the Kaaba of idols upon his victorious return to Mecca, returning the shrine to the monotheism of Ibrahim. The Black Stone is believed to have been given to Ibrahim by the angel Gabriel and is revered by Muslims. Muhammad made a final pilgrimage in 632 C.E., the year of his death, and thereby established the rites of pilgrimage.
In late 1928, an Iraqi named Abdallah Damluji, who had been an adviser to Ibn Saud, submitted a report to the British on "Bolshevik and Soviet penetration" of the Hijaz. In this report, after highlighting Asad's activities in Arabia, Damluji alleged that Asad had connections with Bolsheviks: "What is the real mission which makes him endure the greatest discomforts and the worst conditions of life? On what basis rests the close intimacy between him and Shaykh Yusuf Yasin (secretary to the King and editor of the official newspaper Umm al-Qura)? Is there some connection between von Weiss and the Bolshevik consulate in Jidda?"
After many years, Asad was again invited by another President of Pakistan, General Zia ul-Haq, in 1983 and that was his last visit to this country. When he arrived at Islamabad, which he had not yet seen, he was received at the plane with great honour and escorted to the Presidency. During his sojourn in Islamabad, there was a series of meetings with members of the Ansari Commission in order to prepare a kind of programme for the President for the future. Asad agreed with some, and as usual disagreed with others, which he found retrograde. On one point he was firm and insistent that Muslim women should have exactly the same rights in the political sphere as had men, to the extent of becoming Prime Minister. Asad also spared some time to meet with his surviving friends in Lahore and Islamabad and at the request of the President made several radio and television appearances, as always spontaneous. On his return, he was besieged by letters from literally hundreds of admirers in Pakistan, some even offering him land or a house but he refused politely, considering his concept of Pakistan to be beyond all these worldly trivialities.
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In May 2014, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, with closely related viral genomes, was diagnosed in two Dutch residents, returning from a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These patients travelled with a group of 29 other Dutch travellers. We conducted an epidemiological assessment of the travel group to identify likely source(s) of infection and presence of potential risk factors.
In May 2014, MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed in two Dutch residents. These cases travelled with a group of 29 other people, returning to the Netherlands from pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, KSA . We conducted a comprehensive epidemiological assessment of the travel group aiming to identify the likely source(s) of infection and presence of potential risk factors for these two cases.
The group made a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, KSA (Figure 1). They arrived on the 26th of April 2014 (day 0) in Medina, left by private bus to Mecca on the 4th of May (day 8) and returned to Amsterdam on the 10th of May (day 14). Case 1 started to feel feverish and had diarrhoea on the 1st of May (day 5). Respiratory complaints started on the 10th of May (day 14). MERS-CoV was identified in Case 1 on the 13th of May (day 17) and in Case 2 on the 14th of May (day 18). Detailed case reports of the two patients are described by Kraaij et al. . During their pilgrimage, the whole group stayed in the same hotels and had breakfasts together. There was no fixed collective travel programme, but they had some joint visits to several mosques. The travellers also spent time alone or in smaller subgroups, visiting different mosques, markets and restaurants.
On the 5th of May (day 9), Case 1, accompanied by his son, visited an emergency department of a general hospital in Mecca because of acute malaise, weakness, nausea and diarrhoea (without respiratory complaints). These symptoms started on May 1 (day 5). Case 1 and his son spend 30-45 minutes in the waiting room, though they had no specific exposure to coughing people. On the 7th of May (day 11) Case 1 returned to another hospital in Mecca, accompanied by his son, where he only briefly stayed in the waiting room, received antibiotic treatment and was observed for approximately three hours. Four other travellers, including his son, accompanied him. Two of them did not notice any coughing persons, while the other two did not answer this question. Case 2 did not visit a hospital during the pilgrimage or prior to her diagnosis in the Netherlands.
Scholars, including Seán Hemingway, the author's grandson and editor of the recent anthology, Hemingway on War, continue to use documents and photographs in the Hemingway Collection to educate others about Hemingway and his writings on war. The topic of war has also been central to Hemingway forums and conferences organized by the Kennedy Library, including a recent session entitled "Writers on War." And at the Hemingway centennial, held at the library in 1999, many speakers referenced Hemingway's experience in war and his observations on its aftermath as an abiding element of his literary legacy.
Recuperating for six months in a Milan hospital, Hemingway fell in love with Agnes von Kurowsky, an American Red Cross nurse. At war's end, he returned to his home in Oak Park, Illinois, a different man. His experience of travel, combat, and love had broadened his outlook. Yet while his war experience had changed him dramatically, the town he returned to remained very much the same.
Hemingway returned to Europe after marrying his first wife, Hadley Richardson. His 1923 passport contains a photograph of him as a young, though serious, man. Initially working as a correspondent for the Toronto Star, while living in Paris he grew into a novelist with the encouragement of such Left Bank notables as Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, and F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Commenting on the days and months he spent writing the novel, Hemingway wrote his editor, Max Perkins, that during this time much had occurred in his own life, including the birth of his second son, Patrick, by Caesarian section and the suicide of his father.
In Spain, Francisco Franco, with support from Germany and Italy, used his Nationalist forces to spearhead a revolt against the government and those loyal to the Republic. When civil war broke out, Hemingway returned to Spain as a correspondent for the North American Newspaper Alliance, serving, at times, with fellow journalist Martha Gellhorn, who would become his third wife.
In 1944 he returned to Europe to witness key moments in World War II, including the D-day landings. He was 44 at the time and, comparing his photograph on his Certificate of Identity of Noncombatant to the portrait of the young 19-year-old who volunteered in World War I, one notices how distinguished the internationally renowned author had become in those 25 years.
In 1944 Hemingway returned to Europe as a correspondent, traveling with the 22nd Regiment to Paris. At the Hotel de la Mere Poularde, Mont-St.-Michel, in August 1944 are pictured (left to right) Bill Walton, Mme. Chevalier, Ernest Hemingway, an unidentified Signal Corps photographer, M. Chevalier, and Robert Capa. (Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, Kennedy Library)
The risk of transmission of respiratory viruses including COVID-19 is particularly high due to the overcrowding conditions at the Hajj and Umrah. The profile of the Hajj pilgrims who tend to be older and with multiple comorbidities corresponds to that of individuals at risk for severe COVID-19. In order to avoid a COVID-19 outbreak with potential spreading to many countries through returning pilgrims, Saudi Arabia suspended the Umrah, and access to the 2020 Hajj was very limited.
Overall, these results show that acquisition of respiratory viruses following the Hajj is very frequent with high carriage rates on leaving KSA and a potential for further transmission on returning to home country. This strongly suggests that the Hajj and possibly the Umrah may contribute to the globalization of common respiratory viruses.
International travel has already been shown to play a central role in the spreading of COVID-19 and international MGs like the Hajj or Umrah, if maintained may well have contributed to the globalization of SARS-CoV-2 through returned participants. [49,50,51]. A few cases of COVID-19 occurred in Umrah pilgrims before international travel was banned. As an example, the first patient who died of COVID-19 in Pakistan was a returned Umrah pilgrim . In addition, most of Hajj and Umrah pilgrims are from countries with suboptimal disease surveillance or travel health counseling service .
On May 29, 2020, WHO published the key planning recommendations for mass gatherings in the context of COVID-19 . There are several factors to consider when determining the need to cancel or postpone a mass gathering event. These factors include the number of attendees and the proportion at greater risk of COVID-19 transmission, the density of attendees within a confined place, the level of transmission in the host area, and the community to which the participants will return . WHO also recommended canceling gatherings of more than 10 persons for organizations that serve higher-risk populations or community-wide MGs with more than 250 participants . If a MG is to be held, prevention supplies are needed to be provided to event staff and participants, such as hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, disposable tissues, trash baskets, disposable facemasks, and surface disinfectants (Table 2) . 2b1af7f3a8