Peer-to-Peer network based system attempt to solve these problems using a different approach. In a P2P system, each Peer(a node in the network) can send or receive files (in small parts) to others peers. Therefore, if you want to download a file, you can get small pieces of it from multiple computers. If a computer has only a portion of a file, it can send that portion to other computers and it is not required to have the whole file on sending peers( or seeds). Thus, a computer in the system can both receive pieces of the file from multiple other seeds, and send portions simultaneously.
Then the content provider starts a BitTorrent client with a full copy of the torrent file as the original seed. For each torrent file, there is a tracker site, whose URL is encoded in the meta file, to help peers find each other to exchange the file chunks. However, newer version of protocol does not need any trackers and rely on Distributed Hash tables on Nodes for peer discovery.
All peers in the system, including both downloaders and seeds, self-organize into a P2P network, known as a torrent. The initial seed can leave the torrent when there are other seeds available, and content availability and system performance in the future depend on the arrival and departure of downloaders and other seeds.
The SHA-1 hash codes of the pieces are included in the torrent file. The downloaded data are verified by computing the SHA-1 hash code and comparing it to the SHA-1 code of the corresponding piece in the torrent file. This way the data is checked for errors and it guarantees to the users that they are downloading the real thing.
It then contacts the nodes it knows about with IDs closest to the infohash and asks them for the contact information of peers currently downloading the torrent. If a contacted node knows about peers for the torrent, the peer contact information is returned with the response.
Otherwise, the contacted node must respond with the contact information of the nodes in its routing table that are closest to the infohash of the torrent. The original node iteratively queries nodes that are closer to the target infohash until it cannot find any closer nodes.
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